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India’s Three Main Tea Regions

Plucking tea in an Assam tea garden

Nearly a century after the Boston Tea Rebellion, steam power and industrialization entered the tea gardens of India. An incredible mechanized tea making environment was created that moved the focus of the English tea empire away from China. Remember, it was Chinese tea that was tossed overboard in 1773.

The first Indian tea, from Assam, debuted at the London auction in 1839. It brought a high price because of its rarity, but it took 20 years for English-owned companies to show a profit and transplant their agricultural model to other areas of India such as Darjeeling and Nilgiri.

A good student of tea should be able to identify the three main tea growing regions of India and their signature teas. Here is a simple guide to get your started on your adventure into the classic black teas of India.

Tetley Tea Taster, Calcutta

Assam is located in the upper right corner of India near China’s vast tea growing province of Yunnan. Assam teas are noted for the rich malty flavor that blenders look for when creating an Irish Blend or an English Breakfast. With over 800 gardens, it is the largest tea growing region in the world. Much of the tea has traditionally been inexpensive CTC grade manufactured mainly for tea bags. Now the demand for orthodox (full-leaf) teas seen a variety of exceptional single-estate offerings valued by savvy tea drinkers. But, a well-made CTC can still be a great comfort tea with a bit of milk on a cold day. I refer to it as the macaroni and cheese of teas.

A First (early spring) or Second Flush (late spring) Assam tea from a reputable estate would be an excellent choice for your morning cup. These teas are mellow and less astringent than the teas made only to be consumed with milk. A good Tippy Assam or GFOP Assam is perfect when brewed four to five minutes, or it can be infused for six minutes if you want to add milk. Always look for an unblended offering from a named estate.

Nilgiri is home to the Blue Mountains of southern India and teas grown there are among the finest produced anywhere. It’s proximity to the equator and the moisture-laden Indian Ocean winds make for perfect tea growing conditions. Like neighboring Sri Lanka, these medium body teas are easily drunk, hard to over brew, and perfect for blending. Look for Orange Pekoe grades from estates such as Burnside, Dunsandle or Wellbeck. For a rare tea experience, try a Frost Tea from one of the high mountain gardens. These teas are made from leaves lightly kissed by early morning frost. The wiry longleaf teas yield slightly nutty overtones with characteristics of a fine oolong.

darjeeling garden
Steep slopes of Darjeeling

Darjeelings are the perfect compliment for an elegant afternoon tea meal. No other tea in the world carries the distinctive muscatel overtones and bright coppery color of these prized teas from these Himalayan foothills. The appearance, liquor, and aroma of Darjeeling teas are instantly recognizable by tea drinkers worldwide. These teas owe their distinctive flavor partly to the type of bush (Camellia sinensis) and partly to the climate and altitude.

The term “Darjeeling” is a registered trademark and only teas from the 86 gardens in the region are permitted to carry the distinctive title. The best examples are manufactured and sold as First Flush or Second Flush. But Autumnal Flush Darjeelings can often be bargain-priced.

Darjeeling teas demand attention and can be easily over brewed. Steep your tea for three minutes, and taste. Increase the steeping time in 15-second intervals until you find the right strength and flavor notes for your enjoyment.

Darjeelings have long held the distinction of being the Champagne of teas; however, I prefer to compare them to Pinot Noirs because of their delicately complex flavors and mouth feel. And like Pinots, they can – depending on the temperature, tea cup, or who you’re drinking with – either thrill or disappoint you at great expense!

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Bruce Richardson

MSN calls Bruce Richardson "A leading tea expert involved in tea's American renaissance for over 30 years." The native Kentuckian is a writer, photographer, tea blender, and frequent guest speaker at tea events across the globe. He can often be found appearing on television and radio talk shows, or as a guest speaker at professional seminars such as World Tea Expo or China Global Tea Fair. He is the author ...

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